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RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY

Methodology: Mixed Method

      Mixed method research provides a fuller understanding of research problems (Baran, 2010).  Quantitative or qualitative approaches by themselves may not be adequate to fully understand the journey of senior citizens in the new normal in-times of Covid19 pandemic. Mixed method design is the collection and analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data (Creswell, Plano Clark, Gutmann, & Hanson, 2003).  Rigorous qualitative and quantitative methods need to collect data simultaneously or sequentially to best address research problems (Creswell, 2013).  Therefore, this study utilizes mixed method design in exploring the challenges and experiences of senior citizens in the new normal.      

      For the qualitative data, this study will explore the following themes namely: Activities of Daily Living during the new normal, lay perspectives about the signs and symptoms, and experiences on depression and anxiety during the new normal, family support to senior citizens and support of senior citizens to their family and community, how senior citizens adapt to new normal,  worries of senior citizens in the present and future, and advice/recommendations to fellow senior citizens, community and government, and lastly, senior citizens perspectives on vaccination. 

      For the quantitative data, this study will present the descriptive analysis of the following variables:

  • Total Respondents per cluster (NCR, Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao, & KII)

  • Sex (per location and total)

  • Age (Per category)

  • Marital Status

  • Educational Attainment

  • With Pension

  • Living Arrangements

The following assessment tool will be explored in this study:

  1. World Health Organization 5-Wellbeing Index

  2. Duke Depression and Anxiety Scale

  3. Duke Social Interaction and Support DSSI 11-item

Method of Data Collection

References

  • Topp C.W., Østergaard S.D., Søndergaard S., & Bech P. (2015). The WHO-5 Well-Being Index: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84, 167-176.

 

  • WHO. (1998). Wellbeing Measures in Primary Health Care/The Depcare Project. WHO Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen.

      Survey and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) for senior citizens living in the community.

Key Informant Interviews (Video recording) to Medical Practitioners, and Allied Medical Professionals working for senior citizens.   KIIs includes notable senior citizens (ex. National Commission for Senior Citizens (NCSC), FSCAP Leaders and etc.)  

      The research team leader, research associates and data enumerators followed the safety protocols in gathering data.  More so, the respondents have provided their consent and they have agreed to voluntarily participate in this study.

Sampling

      Given the safety protocols, non-probability or availability sampling were used in choosing the respondents.

      The sampling size is divided in the following areas:

            70- Metro Manila

            70- Luzon (Bulacan and Olongapo/Zambales)

            70- Visayas (Bohol)

            70- Mindanao (Davao and General Santos City)

            70- KII (Professionals, Experts and Notable Senior Citizens)

Data Analysis

      Nvivo 12PLUS is used for data management, review of related literature and in thematic analyses of the KIIs for senior citizen’s and experts and practitioner.  In analyzing descriptive data, MS Excel and Nvivo 12PLUS were used.  Nvivo12 PLUS and PIKTOCHART software were used in data visualization.

Scope and Limitations

  • Collection of Data March 01-30, 2021

  • The statistical analyses are limited to descriptive statistic since this study will no test hypotheses 

  • Given the stricter safety protocols in NCR, the data were complemented by Metro Davao respondents to fulfill the 70 respondents.

  • Given the timeline for the research, this study is limited to 4 areas/cluster

  • This study is limited only to senior citizens living in community and it does not include senior citizens living in residential centers

  • This study is purely voluntary which limits the pool of potential KIIs respondents.

Assessment Tools used in this research

 

            World Health Organization (WHO) Wellbeing index

  • The World Health Organisation- Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a short self-reported measure of current mental wellbeing.  The measure was first introduced in its present form in 1998 by the WHO Regional Office in Europe as part of the DEPCARE project on well-being measures in primary health care.

 

  • The WHO-5 has been found to have adequate validity in screening for depression and in measuring outcomes in clinical trials. Item response theory analyses in studies of younger persons and elderly persons indicate that the measure has good construct validity as a unidimensional scale measuring well-being in these populations (Winther Topp et al., 2015).  The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire that can be reported by children and young people and administered in a variety of settings.

 

  • The WHO-5 consists of five statements, which respondents’ rate according to the scale below (in relation to the past two weeks). All of the time = 5, Most of the time = 4, More than half of the time = 3, Less than half of the time = 2, Some of the time = 1, At no time = 0.  The total raw score, ranging from 0 to 25, is multiplied by 4 to give the final score, with 0 representing the worst imaginable well-being and 100 representing the best imaginable well-being.

 

  • The WHO-5 is free of charge and does not require permission to use.


 

            Duke University Depression and Anxiety scale 

  • The Duke Anxiety - Depression Scale (DUKE-AD) is a 7-item brief screener for both clinical anxiety and depression as defined by the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R). The predictive accuracy of the DUKE-AD in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas is 72.3% for major types of anxiety and 78.3% for major types of depression. At a DUKE-AD score cutoff point of >30 on a scale of 0-100, it has a sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 59.2% for major anxiety, and an 81.8% sensitivity and 63.6% specificity for major depression.

 

  • The DUKE-AD is a brief, easily scored questionnaire that serves as a valid screener for DSM-III-R anxiety and depression in the primary care setting.

 

  •  Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA have approved the use of this assessment tool for this research


 

            Abbreviated Duke Social Support Index 

 

  • The Duke Social Support Index (DSSI) measures multiple dimensions of social support and has been used extensively in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of aging. 

 

  • The DSSI 11-item captures the essential components of social support related to mental health outcomes and use of health services in treating elderly individuals with nonpsychiatric medical illness.

 

•Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA have approved the use of this assessment tool for this research

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